Three-Dimensional Textured Graphene Bioelectronics
Superb electromechanical properties of graphene, where large elastic deformation is achievable without significant perturbation of electrical properties, provide a substantial promise for flexible electronics, advanced nanoelectromechanical and bioelectronic devices. We report three-dimensional (3D) field-effect transistor biosensors built from the monolithic integration of crumpled graphene and graphite. First, we present monolithic synthesis of graphene-graphite for all-carbon bioelectronic transistor arrays. Second, we develop a rapid and scalable method of texturing 2-dimensional (2D) graphene by using soft-matter transformation of shape-memory polymers into 3D bioelectronic sensors. We demonstrate that the thermally-induced transformation of graphene on a polymeric substrate creates 3D textured graphene. We further characterize the electrical and mechanical properties of 3D graphene, and demonstrate the robust electromechanical properties of 3D textured graphene. Finally, we explore biosensor device applications by constructing an array of field-effect biosensors and interfacing with muscle and cardiac cells for 3D nano-electrophysiology. We believe our approach to forming textured graphene by soft-matter transformation offers a unique avenue for creating advanced and 3D bioelectronic devices, and furthermore, these unique capabilities could be exploited in chemical and biological detection and conformal interface with biological systems in the future.